Category Archives: Uncategorized

The Enigmatic Lab

Welcome to this enigma game!

You’re about to enter the Enigmatic Lab, and your quest is simple: save the world! Or at least avoid several wars…

To play, please click here, and do the following actions:

  1. Download either the whole folder, either one of the archive files (lighter for slow internet connection). If you downloaded an archive file, extract it and open the destination folder.
  2. Open the file Start.html

It’s highly recommended playing this game using Firefox, for compatibility reasons.

If you are stuck, feel free to contact me :

Thank you for playing!

Google Home Style Exercises

Exercices de style est l’un des ouvrages les plus célèbres de l’écrivain français Raymond Queneau. Paru en 1947, ce livre singulier raconte 99 fois la même histoire, de 99 façons différentes. “

In the videos below we are sharing 4 different stories with the same video, which is the Google Home ad. We hope you will enjoy and have a good time !

You can put subtitles on, they are home-made !

Made by : Sidi Tfeil, Ronan Bebin, Regis Graptin & Augustin Janvier.

Change in eating patterns – Overpopulation [#5]

With this fast evolution of the human population, it is legitimate to ask how to feed all these people, especially with the reduction of arable land. It is urgent to find new food sources. From insects to urban agriculture, to meat in vitro, new trends are already emerging to change our eating habits.

The first reason for this radical change in diet is the fight against hunger. FAO says “forest products, including insects, are essential to fight hunger”. Insects are rich in protein, low in fat and especially good for food. For comparison, it takes two kilograms of plants to produce one kilogram of insects, while eight kilograms are needed to produce one kilogram of meat. Insects are very popular in many countries in the world where more than 2 billion people consume some 1,400 species. Insects could be a sustainable and inexpensive alternative for ensuring food security for humankind. Coleoptera, caterpillars, ants, grasshoppers, crickets, worms, locusts and other bee larvae contain more protein than a steak and their farming have a much lighter carbon impact than that of cattle, pigs or cattle poultry.

As seen previously, we consume a lot of meat which raises many problems. According to the FAO, world meat production was 280 million tons in 2008, more than 6 times its value in 1950. We are seeing an increase of 1 to 6% per year. The average growth rate is 2.4% over the period 1998-2008. And according to FAO, meat demand could grow by 200 million tons between 2010 (286.2 million tons) and 2050. To answer this demand, new methods of meat production are needed.

Currently in the experimental phase, in vitro meat could in the coming decades help us to meet worldwide’s nutritional needs. Despite its price is quite high today, around 188 000 euros per piece, an industrial process could lower its price in the next few years, to reach about 55 dollars per kilo. This industrialization, does not lack investors with big names like Bill Gates (founder of Microsoft), Peter Thiel (a German investor very present in Silicon Valley, which supported PayPal and Facebook in their beginning) and Sergei Brin (Google’s founder).

Other solutions are also envisaged. Today consumed in Asia, algae could appear in the rest of the world. These aquatic vegetables have already proven their benefits especially in the fight against cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or hypertension. However, not all algae are edible. Today only 24 species are allowed for consumption in France.

More ambitious projects make us imagine a new form of agriculture. With the increase in the demand for food, and the decrease of arable land, it is urgent to find an alternative to classical agriculture, in the countryside. Urban agriculture could help us. There are already some urban farms, in England in a former anti-aircraft shelter but also in France, in Saint Malo where a young startup promises to grow plants in sea containers. In the future, some architects already imagine skyscrapers dedicated to farming.

Our way of life – Overpopulation [#4]

The way of life of an individual is principally characterized in particular by his habits, his tastes, his interests, his social level, etc. Each country is characterized by its own way of life, but it can be divided into two distinct groups: the northern countries, or “rich” countries, and the southern countries, otherwise called the “poor” countries. The lifestyles of these two areas have a major impact on today’s world. It is obvious that food and water are two major challenges that will be the focus of concern in the coming years if we want to cross the threshold of 10 billion people in a sustainable way. Our lifestyles are at the root of all these challenges and it is from our ways of life that the way we use the Earth is determined.

We are huge consumers of meat, both in developing and developed countries. Despite a decline in recent years, especially in France, the effects are invisible because of an increasing population. This high consumption of meat is a major concern to meet the challenges ahead. Indeed, between 10 and 15,000 liters of water and 6kg of cereals are needed to produce 1kg of meat. Knowing the current situation, where populations still have precarious access to food and water, it is obvious that livestock is partly a cause of this problem. In addition, this sector also has a strong impact on the environment, which we know today, is under threat. In addition to consuming a lot of water, livestock farming is one of the biggest sources of water pollution. This pollution comes from, among other things, medicines and hormones that are given to animals, chemicals used in the tanning industry and pesticides used in cereal farming.

Due to the resources needed for breeding, our demands for meats are not in harmony with an increasing world population. About 70% of the world’s arable land is used for livestock. On its own, animal feed production occupies more than 30% of available land. It implies that one-third of the world’s cereals are used directly for animal feed ; however, a decline in livestock production would not lead to a drop in world hunger despite a certain increase in land and available cereals. In fact, we produce in a large excess to feed the whole world, about 50% of additional production compared to the needs necessary to feed all populations. The problem, therefore, has another origin. It is believed that a decline in livestock production around the world would have a major impact on the environment, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, which today account for about 14.5% of total emissions, as well as water pollution and global impact on biodiversity.

So, we produce enough food for all populations but it is very unequally distributed as mentioned above. In the same way, an increase in agricultural production is not a viable solution for feeding the world. It would only push our limits while aggravating the situation of the planet from an environmental point of view. Our demands for food and the financialization of the world make it less and less possible for the poorest people to have access to food. On average, people in rich countries spend between 10% and 20% of their income, while those living in poor countries spend between 50% and 80% of their income. Our current system leaves today little space and little right to poor countries, which suffer the consequences of our way of lives. As a result, the environment is neglected in favor of our appetite and inequalities are important between rich and poor countries. We already see the limits of this system while 2.5 billion more people are announced by 2050. It is therefore imperative to find viable solutions to meet the challenges ahead.

Ressource management – Overpopulation [#3]

While famines are still relevant, food waste has reached records. Nowadays, 1.3 billion tons of food are thrown away. Only in France, no less than 10 million tons of food are discarded per year, or about 150 kilograms per inhabitant, counting the entire sector. This food waste costs France about 12 to 20 billion euros each year. On a global scale, the wasted value reaches 640 billion euros.

While we could say that the waste mainly concerns the northern countries, it turns out that it spares no country. This phenomenon, however, is directly related to the way of life of developed countries. Indeed, when we go shopping, we are used to having the shelves always full, with a huge diversity of products. Then when we go to the fruit and vegetable department, it is almost impossible for us to see a deformed vegetable: all are identical and flawless. The figures speak for themselves: production alone accounts for nearly 1/3 of food waste. Countries are affected differently by this waste, according to their incomes, related at the same time to the “producer” and “consumer” countries. In northern countries, 65% of the waste comes from the upstream of the chain (i.e. production, storage, …) while for southern countries, this waste represents 90%.

In order to feed a more urban and richer population in 2050, food production will have to increase by 70%, according to a FAO’s report. Water will be directly impacted by this huge increase in production. Farming is using 70% of freshwater resources, which implies that its demand will explode by 55% by 2050. Water control is a major geopolitical issue, especially in the Middle East, Turkey, Iraq and Syria. In this region of the world, Iraq and Syria depend on Turkey for the flows Tiger and Euphrates. These two rivers have their source in Turkey and 88% of the flow of these rivers also comes from this country. Syria and Iraq, which are downstream of these rivers, therefore depend on the Turks for the irrigation of their fields. Water is now nicknamed by some people “blue gold”. The United Nations has noted in its latest reports that this resource is increasingly poorly managed, despite the exploding demand. If water management does not change in the coming years, the Earth could face a water deficit of nearly 40% by 2030, well before the 10 billion mark. North Africa already reports a global water deficit of 30% of its needs. Like access to food, people still do not have access to an “improved” water source (defined by the UN as water that has never been in contact with animals). Not less than 740 million people do not have access to these water sources.

The explosion in water demand is also the consequence of the explosion of energy demand, the evolution of our way of life (consumption of more and more meat) and global warming. All these phenomena are interrelated, which only aggravates the situation.

The basic needs challenge – Overpopulation [#2]

The first basic human needs are physiological ones : eating, drinking, sleeping or breathing. To date, despite a decline in the number of people undernourished since 1991, inequalities persist and 1 in 9 people remain undernourished. Regarding freshwater, it represents only 0.7% of the water on Earth according to recent estimations. It is already a source of conflict between nations since its importance is undeniable: water is what we have most precious on Earth. We can already see the limits of our system and we expect 2.5 billion more people by 2050.

Access to food is very unequal. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a consumption of 2500 kcal for a man and 2000 kcal for women to support our body needs. These figures may vary by country but are a basis of comparison between countries. For example, in France, the National Agency for Food Safety (ANSES) recommends 2600 kcal for a man and 2100 kcal for a woman.

At the sight of the figures, the European countries, the United States, or more generally the rich countries are for the majority above 3000 kcal of energy supply per inhabitant. In contrast, nearly a dozen is below the threshold of 2000 kcal, the average of recommendations for a woman, and 60 countries are below the threshold of 2500 kcal, average recommendations of energy intake for a man. So, there are countries with a large excess of calories at the same time as countries that are struggling to reach the recommendations.

Daily calorie intake per capita, FAO, 2010

In the same vein, we can see that the phenomenon also affects access to proteins, which are vital to the proper functioning of the body. The recommendations for proteins are 60g per day and per person. As with calorie intake, nearly 50 countries are below recommendations. The most protein-consuming countries are above 120g per day per person. The gap between poor and rich countries is once again demonstrated. Both maps highlight the numbers.

Daily protein intake per capita, FAO, 2010

Beyond the statistical information that the previous maps give us, they are also a good indicator of malnutrition. The term “malnutrition” defines both nutritional deficiencies and food overages. In a general way this term defines the imbalances of the nutritional contributions. Malnutrition therefore spares no country, only the group to which each of them belongs differs. The first group defined by the WHO is undernutrition, which includes the low height-to-age ratio, called stunting, the low weight / height ratio, called emaciation, the low weight / age ratio, called underweight, as well as various micronutrient deficiencies. This group concerns 2 billion people, mainly Africans or Asians. In contrast, the second group concerns people with obesity, overweight or diet-related noncommunicable diseases. As many people are affected by undernutrition as by overnutrition.

The reasons for this malnutrition are difficult to detect. Nevertheless, concerning the countries or the regions of Africa and Asia, 3 main causes are at the origin of the malnutrition issue. These are the increasing number and intensity of conflicts, the climate change which affects crop growing, and the financialization of the world. Wars and conflicts, as well as climate change, will not cause this malnutrition if they did not reach already weakened countries, which have no or little food reserves. Indeed, some conflicts have lasted for many years in the majority affected regions, such as the Central African Republic. Added to this, there is the purchase, or the grabbing, of significant agricultural land by various multinationals, particularly in Africa. Globalization helped by the financialization of the world are the source of these low prices land purchases. For rich countries, also affected by malnutrition, the reasons are much more diverse, stemming mainly from their lifestyles and the consumer society in which they live.

You say overpopulation ? [#1]

The world’s population is already over 7.5 billion humans. It has been multiplied by two in the last 45 years, and even the most optimistic projections show we will reach the 10 billion mark about 2050. Many experts in population and development discuss this problematic. Is the world ready and capable of welcoming 10 billion people ?

What’s behind “Overpopulation” ?

Population growth is not a new phenomenon. The carrying capacity and WWF recently brought back questions about the world’s population in the foreground. The carrying capacity is the maximum or optimal number of people that a certain territory can accommodate without being destroyed by this population. In our case the territory is Earth and humans. In theory, this capacity is ideal to define overpopulation but in practice it is impossible to calculate it. In fact, it is not hard to model the resources present on the earth but the problem is to know which resources humans will consume over a period of time. For example, a few dozen years ago, rare-earth elements were not used at all and today it’s a major preoccupation.

Despite these difficulties, WWF and some other studies defined at approximately 8 billion the earth’s carrying capacity. A 2001 report from the UN indicated that two-thirds of the estimates are between 4 and 16 billion.

The possible consequences of overpopulation are numerous and we can already see the stakes that such an important population will raise. Nowadays, while we have almost reached the carrying capacity of the planet, we face energy, environmental and social challenges that can only increase.




It’s been a while since I wrote in my logbook and well, things have not been doing well in space. This journey can bring us some bad surprises…

However, today, I have time to continue my logbook and more precisely continue what I started last time, the story that revolves around information. I managed to write a logbook and try to share it with you myself but, will it ever reach you? In the hypothesis where my journey ends up at the bottom of a black hole if we may say, in theory, we would be able to have access to everything by catching and assembling each atom that has been disassembled and put it in the position where it was. By doing so, we would be able to retrieve what has been destroyed.

So, you may wonder what the link is with losing information if we could in theory reconstruct it. Well, black holes in all their mystery bring us problem. It’s what we call the information paradox. 

In fact, it’s paradoxical because the laws of physics say that nothing -particularly information- can disappear, but it can change its form. However, British scientist Hawking came up with a theory saying that black holes are ‘evaporating’. Extremely slowly, but surely. What could potentially be a problem is that the information that is suck in would be lost forever. Indeed, as mentioned previously, black holes can suck in literally everything. And, by saying that, also information that is present in the Universe. So, all the indication about the creation of the Universe would disappear into the black hole. 

But, why is it so important? Information is crucial to understand how things are made, how the world is what it is now. As, you may probably know, everything in the Universe is made up of the same atoms. Take the same number of atoms from an object and change their arrangement and you will get something totally different. So, if it weren’t because of the arrangement of atoms, everything in the Universe would be the same. 

How exactly do black holes evaporate and what does eventually evaporate? Before the discovery of the Hawking radiation, scientists thought that everything including information is trapped in the black hole, so is in theory secured. However, in the 1970’s, Hawking with his theory of black holes evaporating their mass shakes all this up. In fact, a black hole has to evaporate especially when its temperature pass over the cosmic microwave background one’s. To put it simple, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is an electromagnetism radiation which can be observe in every direction of the Universe and showed up a few years after the Big Bang. At that time, the Universe was smaller than now and the CMB was hotter. Now, its temperature has decreased because of the expansion of the Universe and stagnates now at 3 Kelvin (-270,15°C). So, that is why, black holes are evaporating because of thermal diffusion. Just to set up everything, basically thermal diffusion result in hot things -here mass of black holes, temperature: 10 billion degrees to say the least- “going” or “traveling” to cold things (CMB at -270,15°C). But to make this diffusion possible, a black hole has to emit particles that carry thermal energy. And those types of particles don’t carry information because the process is unpredictable. Hence, information could be lost forever. Doesn’t sound good…

Regardless of what it is, what could be the various scenarios to this… Information is lost forever.  Or from what Hawking came up with a few years later, there is a potential solution for this information paradox. In fact, the information could be stored on the surface of the black hole (the event horizon) and not inside. So, due to the evaporation of the black hole, the information could be get back. Another possibility is that black hole could split a part of itself and create a new Universe and so the information could be stored here. 

I have to end my logbook now. But keep in mind that every theory is just a theory and needs to be proven.

Is Rap the new Rock ?

It’s 40 years since the fans of rock and rap have been very distinct species (different dress style for example). Each group has their own musical universe, like System of a Down, AC / DC on one side and Jay-Z, WTC on the other. However, today, a new generation of American artists has been emerging lately called emotrap artists or soundcloud rappers. The best known are Post Malone, XXXTentacion, Lil Peep, Trippie Redd and Suicide Boys and we can say that they are neither rap nor rock but a new genre that borrows from both worlds.


Their look is a kind of mix between rap and rock (black sweater and gold chains but with Texan rocker fringes for example).

They have a gesture that is also between rap and rock. When it comes to gestures inspired by rap, we have pointed it out, the simildab, gold teeth for example, and in the case of gestures inspired by rock, we can name our tongue drawn, playing the air guitar, horns of the devil.

The Rockstar’s way of life has long been a rapper’s dream (Post Malone ft. 21 Savage – Rockstar) and there are many references to Kurt Cobain, be it in the lyrics of French or American rappers, for example.

These soundcloud rappers live in the same way, being more sulphurous, more extreme.


Now, we are going to talk about another aspect which can show that soundcloud rappers use beats that are different from the usual instruments used for the trap, with more rock influenced instrumentals. We can see this Lil Peep’s Spotify where we find the names of Sum 41, Red hot chili peppers, Good charlotte who are definitely rock artists. We can find that also at XXXtentacion who sample Slipknot for his single Off the wall.  For his instrumentals he also uses guitar saturated sounds in punk rock mode.


Some flows used by these rappers are reminiscent of rock. For example, we can note the fact that Lil peep used a type of flow in 2 syllables which is rarely used in rap but which we can find in sounds of the Red Hot Chili Peppers and notably the song  “you always sing the same”.

As we can see, Lil peep is deeply influenced by this group. It’s not a coincidence as the red hot are the first rockers who rapped during a rap concert, they also distinguished themselves by melting rap and punk rock in some of their sounds as it was the case in “Give it away”. A song which inspired the scene rap in the United States in the 80s and whose chorus was taken over by Busta Rhymes.

It can also be possible to note the appearance of sung chorus in rap song and it is a phenomenon also found in rap in Europe.

In addition, we can find some flows more aggressive which shows likeness to rock. This is particularly the case with Trippie Redd, some of which are close to those of Linkin park.


In the lyrics of soundcloud rappers, the emotions communicated are larger and deeper than in traditional rap (sad emotions, often linked to disappointments in love (ex: Trippie Redd)). These are not the first rappers to talk about feelings but today there is a whole movement around this sadness. It brings these rappers to take refuge in drugs like Xanax, one of the drugs which unfortunately caused the death of Lil Peep on November 15, 2017 at 21 years old or the lean which is today really present in the USA and also in the french rap notably with Freeze Corleone or Senamo.

This cocktail of sadness and drugs brings these rappers to suicidal tendencies (as can be explicit in XXXTentatcion’s songs). Thus, rap explores a new range of emotions that were previously reserved for rock.


In 1976, a new type of danse appeared in rock and punk concerts, the pogo, a dance in which the dancers jump up and down, while either remaining on the spot or moving around. Nowadays, this type of dance is really present during rap concerts, in this way we can name XTRM Tour or Biffty & Dj Weedim which are real adepts of this type of atmosphere. That’s why, today, it doesn’t solely concerns rock or punk concerts as was the case in the past. This is another aspect where rock and rap present similarities.


The distinction between different styles of music does not really make sense today. There are no more boxes but a lot of mix, inspiration and new ideas to stand out and come up with a new genre, a new music to transmit new emotions or at least different emotions.

We talked a lot about the rap in America, but in France, it’s the same thing ; sometimes it’s difficult to actually categorize the type of music and we only have to accept that it doesn’t belong to any type.


3 Video Games we’ll never forget

With this article, we’re going to make you discover 3 video games we wanted to share our love for each ones in order to give you the will to interest you in more.

Detroit: Become Human

Detroit: Become Human is an adventure game developed by Quantic Dream and published by Sony Interactive Entertainment for PlayStation 4, in May 2018. The plot deals with humans, living  with androids, who are working for them, doing some tasks like the house-keeping, resolving crimes or taking care of older people.

 When I started the game, i have been directly immersed in the universe of the game, and the attachment for the 3 androids you play became naturally: Kara, ready to lose her life to save the child; Connor, which each case he manages make him more and more compassionate for the deviants; and Markus, who’s fighting for androids rights.

The three characters

In the whole game, you make the decisions, where each one is important, and can change the future. For instance, a bad choice and Kara died during the second scene. I had the impression to control the whole story, where I could do what i want: Each scene owns dozens ends. That’s why, when i ended the game after more than 20 hours, i immediately started another one, to discover what other decisions will make on the story until the end.

Every Possibilities of endings for one scene

Besides the amazing story proposed by Detroit, it also has an awesome art direction: i often forgot that i was playing a game, and not watching a movie. The movements, reactions of the characters were so similar to real ones, that i was really impressed: this is thanks to motion capture method. It took several months to end the shooting, directed by David Cage, a master of this type of games.

Extract of the making of

Finally, let’s talk about something essential: Musics. And Oh My God this was good.
For each characters, one composer made the music for its character scene, at the level of a good movie.

The composer of Kara’s theme

To summarize this game with a few words, Detroit will transport you with its huge story and its beautiful Art Direction.

Second on our list,  the wonderful game… Borderlands 2. the game was developed by video game  studio Gearbox Software and published by 2K in 2012 on every platform used at the time. Borderlands 2 sold over 13 million copies, making it 2K’s best-selling title ever.

The story:the plot takes place on Planet pandora. This fictional planet was exploited before the time the story began for its alien technologies and its mining resources.

The ambiance of the game is  fun offbeat and amazing. The story is full of humour and there are a lot of cool jokes ! The main plot is that there is an alien vault that contains lots of  alien ore called ERIDIUM on pandora. The shelter is said to give a huge power to the one controle it. The Planet is dominated by a company called hyperion and his CEO the handsome Jack. The company exploit the planet with a iron hand. His company have soldier robot to defend the interest of the company. His goal is, as for every bad guy ever in video games, to control the vault because he discovered that the shelter contain an alien monster that can give an unbelievable power. But this information remind a secrets and a lot of adventurer are attracted by the mystery of the vault and the opportunity it offers of being rich by exploiting its resources. But those vault hunter are considered as enemies by Jack that kill most of them when they arrive in the planet. You embody a vault hunter that succeed to escape and will fight with pandora opponent to jack.

In this game you beat monsters, destroy robots, kill criminals and all this happen it those hand drawing comics like graphics. The game is a first person shooter. The weapons in the game are created by a random generator that assemble randomly part of weapons. There are more than 17 million possibility in total. You will never find a weapon twice and there are a lot of special weapons like those:

Since the story doesn’t take place on earth there is a different gravity and every time we jump we stay in the air  like forever. The game also have a system of skill tree in which every capacity has a funny name. This enabled the player to give his character the abilities he want which enable a lot of different ways of playing.

What I like in this game is that crazy atmosphere and the fact that we can replay the game again and again and always have a different experience.

As gamers, we all have a game that has left a mark on our life. I have several games like this but if I had to keep one, I’m pretty sure it would be Red Dead Redemption.

Red Dead Redemption is a western action-adventure game developed by Rockstar San Diego and published by Rockstar Games on Xbox 360 and PS3 on May 2010.

The story takes place in the year 1911 during the decline of the American frontier. All along the game, we follow John Marston, a former outlaw whose wife and son have been taken under hostage by the government in order to force Marston to track down three of his former brothers in arms and bring them to justice.

The game is describe has a GTA like due to its editor and its likeness to the GTA series: a third person shooter gameplay in an open world with a liberty of actions and movements while keeping a logic in its scenario.

Rockstar has made a lot of effort in order to offer the most immersive experience in a western game. Music transports you into that spaghetti western ambiance, you can hear western whistle gimmick, old country violin and harmonica, western brass and piano, vibrates while modern electric guitars rings alongside bass and percussion that gives a modern vibes to the experience.

Alongside to the main storyline and during his exploration, Marston will encounter ambushes, public hangings, plea for assistance. All of these random events are here to provides a total immersion into this western universe. You will also encounter strangers who can require your help and are a bit of a story by themself. Also, you can also take part in optional side activities such as duelings in which you have to be the fastest drawer, bounty hunting to make some money, ambling (poker, blackjack…) and hunting.

Gunfights are fast and vigorous just like we want in a western video game. Be prepared to aim properly because most of the weapons are not automatic. But you can make it precise and deadly with one shot or multiple by using the enhanced gameplay mechanic called “Dead Eye” that allows players to mark multiple shooting targets on enemies in slow motion so it can makes you the fastest gunslinger of the West.

If you’ve always wanted to play a “cowboy” in the wild west by becoming an hero in the path of redemption who protect the weak and the defenceless or a desperado that kill everyone who standing in your way, Red Dead Redemption is the game you looking for.

We hope you’ve enjoyed this article, and even if you’re not passionated by video games, we wish that these .3 different presentations gave you the want to discover these universes.
Give us your 3 favorites games in comments, and critics if you have some!

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Representative democracy: when people can’t voice.

What is democracy? Quoting Abraham Lincoln during his Gettysburg Address, the “government of the people, by the people, for the people” could be a faithful definition. The word comes from Greek “demos” (“the people”) and “kratos” (“the power”). It appeared a long time ago during antiquity like in the first Greek city-states like Athens. Now, it represents an important part of government systems: among the 195 states recognized by UNO, 88 are considered as democracies.

But what about France now? Our country is considering itself a symbol of liberty and democracy, waving the French Revolution as the best proof of our attachment to people’s liberty and of the end of monarchy. But is it really? There are plenty of systems in the world: is the French one so fair?

Today, in France, in the Vth Republic, we are using representative democracy: it means that people are not deciding directly, they elect people to represent them to decide for them. French people are voting for two kinds of representation: the president and the national assembly. The first one is in charge of the executive power. He appoints ministers (and especially the Prime Minister as a member of the major marty elected at the national assembly) who propose laws to the national assembly. The national assembly is composed of 577 deputies elected from all districts and votes the laws. Here are the two tools we have: to decide who names those who propose laws and who accept them. But is it enough?

The true question is maybe “Are we well represented?” and the answer is not as simple as it seems. Let me give you some figures: people aged 25-40 represent 19% of the French population, nearly one in five citizens, whereas only 4% of the ‘députés’ – French MPs — are, almost one in twenty-five! And conversely, 32% of the MPs are aged 60-70, whereas they represent only 11% of the French population. Can we imagine that the decisions taken actually reflect our opinion if people who vote for us are much older? And what about Senate, elected by only 0.3% of the population and constituted by 80% of men, and where 75% of the senators are older than 60? We can also talk about plurality of offices: if the new law will make it illegal in 2017, for the moment, almost 40% of MPs are assuming several offices. Less representatives for less of people’s opinion. Considering all these facts, you can really wonder if the people who are passing laws for ‘the sake’ of our country are so close to what you’re expecting. Even if we can understand that elected people with a certain experience should be useful, we also perfectly know that they are not considering  things the way we do.

What are the tools to express our disagreement ? During the latest elections, abstention was at its highest. Is it a way to make our voice heard? Apparently not, compared to a  blank vote in Colombia or Peru, which is taken into consideration in those countries where a majority of white ballots can result in the election being canceled whereas no participating rate is required in France (where the blank vote is just null) to validate a vote. Other countries have also invented alternative ways to express: in Switzerland, the people can demand a referendum if they disagree with a law voted by the Federal Assembly, simply by collecting 50,000 signatures within 100 days after the law has been voted. People can also directly suggest a law by collecting 100,000 signatures within 18 rolling months.

Our democracy is slightly limited, and growing abstention proves that politics is becoming pointless when reducing people’s voices. Maybe is it time to think about our system and to rebuild it differently to allow every citizen to be well-represented, to express their opinion and ideas for the future.

The Martian

The Martian : How the United States spent millions to save Matt Damon. Again.

I can’t help but wonder about how Matt Damon manages to get lost in such places. Seriously ? Mars ? Anyway, let’s get back to the movie. The story is about Mark Watney, a botanist, and his crew on a scientific expedition on Mars. The mission has to be aborted as a sandstorm approaches, threatening to destroy the ship which is their only way to get back to Earth. And as you’ve already guessed, this anticipated retreat doesn’t go so well, and Watney is left dead on the Red Planet. But well, he’s still alive.

the martian_surprise

“Surprise !”


Now he has to survive in this deadly (yet majestic) land, alone, with only 400 days of food, whereas the next mission is scheduled to land on Mars 4 years after, kilometers away from his temporary shelter. The plot may seem simple and dull. “Are we going to watch a man grow potatoes on Mars for 2 hours and half ?” Absolutely not! , there is much more to it.


First of all, Watney is funny. Even if he’s struggling every minute to save his life, he still finds the time to complain about the awful mixtape of his mates. Every step he takes, every move he makes, is totally captivating, and we cannot but get emotionally invested. It’s so good to see him “science he sh– out of this planet” as he says. It’s hard to see him fail. We live through Watney, almost like we were on Mars with him.


Then, this movie is an ode to science. And it is realistic. You may have also seen Interstellar ; I did and I liked it. However, everyone must agree if I say that Interstellar’s representation of space travels and stuff is completely far-fetched. On the contrary, every piece of science from The Martian is understandable ; everything is explained ; everything seems logic, probably because NASA is the source of 50 pages of the script. So don’t be afraid if you’re not a “nerd”, the movie is made to be enjoyed by everyone.


“Ok great, but seeing the same landscapes and panoramas … I mean it’s only dust, mountains and NASA’s stuff”. Well you do not see a lot of Mars landscapes, and the few which are present in the movie serve a purpose and are beautiful and even stunning at some points. Special mention to the sandstorm in first scenes which is absolutely impressive in 3D. The design of the suits, ships and the shelter also comes from NASA, but with a few adjustments to make them more stylish.

Peaceful moments feels like a breath of fresh air, even though there is nothing to breathe.


No need to explain why it has definitely become part of my top 5 movies, if not the top and I tend to get bored quickly. If you have not seen it yet, please rush to the closest theater, sit down and enjoy your movie. It’s one of the best space movies ever made, mixing science, humor, emotion, and DIY (Do it yourself) stuff.